What is the science behind some of the most interesting supplements to slow down aging?
And how are we to find out whether these substances can actually slow down aging, including in humans?
It’s nearly impossible to select thousands of people and follow them for 30 to 50 years to see if they live longer to test out a nutraceutical, drug or therapy. Such a study would take decades and would cost dozens if not hundreds of millions of dollars.
So we have to find other ways to assess whether specific substances can impact lifespan.
Ideally, such substances are selected according to the following principles:
1. They have the ability to impact aging mechanisms (“hallmarks of aging”)
In the last decade, scientists have described various mechanisms that cause us to age. For example, ten important ones have been described in the “hallmarks of aging” article (R).
These aging mechanisms are epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis (protein accumulation inside and outside our cells), cellular senescence, mitochondrial dysfunction, genomic instability, deregulated nutrient sensing, altered intercellular communication (e.g., inflammation/inflammaging), and so on. Learn more about these aging mechanisms here.
Various substances have been identified that can act on these aging mechanisms.
So a good longevity supplement contains ingredients that act on hallmarks of aging. But they have to do more than that. This brings us to the second requirement.
2. They impact multiple aging mechanisms at the same time
Ideally, each ingredient influences not just one, but multiple aging mechanisms.
For example, glycine has epigenetic effects but can also act as a chaperone, protecting proteins and reducing the risk of protein accumulation (which is one of the reasons why we age).
In this way, combining such ingredients enables synergistic effects on the aging process.
3. They have been able to extend lifespan in various animal models, hinting at conserved evolutionary pathways
Ideally, the ingredients extend lifespan not in just one animal model, but in different species, like C. elegans (a little worm often used in aging research), yeast, fruit flies, or mice.
If the compound extends lifespan in various different species, it’s more likely it will also work in humans. Nonetheless, humans are a very long-lived species, and often the life-extension effects of specific substances measured in simple organisms are much lower in humans.
4. They are associated with reduced risk of different aging-related diseases, hinting that they act on the underlying aging process
The root cause of aging-related diseases such as heart disease, osteoporosis, and Alzheimer’s is aging itself. Most 20- and 30-year-olds don’t get a heart attack or Alzheimer’s.
Aging is by far the biggest risk factor for these diseases.
A substance that can reduce the risk of different diseases of aging simultaneously is likely to act on an underlying mechanism that unites all these diseases, such as aging itself, or at least act on an important aging hallmark that plays a role in multiple aging-related diseases (like protein accumulation or mitochondrial dysfunction).
For example, pterostilbene can reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s (R,R) and diabetes (R), while also improving cardiovascular health (R,R,R) and reducing inflammaging (R,R) and arthritis (R). These are all typical aging diseases and symptoms.
5. They are associated with reduced risk of mortality in humans
Ideally, studies also show an association between reduced mortality in humans that take the supplement on a regular basis.
For example, studies in the U.S. and Europe have shown that only a very few supplements are associated with a reduced risk of mortality. One of these supplements is glucosamine.
Other studies show that lithium, found in drinking water or taken in very low doses, has been associated with less mortality (R,R). Interestingly, lithium intake has also been associated with less risk of aging-related diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (R,R,R).
6. They are recognized as safe by FDA, EFSA, and other organizations
If they are recognized as safe by large, institutional bodies like the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) and EFSA (European Food Safety Agency), this could be another testimony to their safety.
7. They are nature-based
Ideally, they are nature-based and have been present alongside human evolution, and not novel man-made, lab-made molecules.
8. They are found in the human body, but levels decrease with age
Ideally, the substances are found in our bodies, and even more ideal, it involves substances of which the levels decline with age. This might hint at their safety and the fact that their declining levels could play a role in accelerating (or contributing) to aging.
9. They have a (very) low side-effect profile
The substances are known to cause very few side effects (if any), and no serious side effects, even at greater dosages.
10. They have been used for many decades to treat specific symptoms or diseases in humans without serious side-effects
Ideally, the substances also have already been used for decades or even centuries without serious side-effects or issues. An example is glucosamine, which has been taken for decades to treat joint problems (however, very few people know that glucosamine could also slow down aging (R, R,R,R)).
Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) is another example. This substance has been taken for many decades by elite athletes and bodybuilders to improve energy levels without any significant side effects. Alpha-ketoglutarate can also extend lifespan (R,R,R).
In summary, we highlighted some ways that NOVOS uses to identify and select the most interesting and promising substances to slow down aging.
Below you can find a non-exhaustive list of studies regarding such longevity substances.
For an overview of the best science-based anti-aging supplements: click here
- Fisetin is a senotherapeutic that extends health and lifespan. EBioMedicine, 2018
- Fisetin reduces the impact of aging on behavior and physiology in the rapidly aging SAMP8 mouse. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2018
- Fisetin Acts on Multiple Pathways to Reduce the Impact of Age and Disease on CNS Function. Front Biosci, 2015
- The Potential of Flavonoids for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases. Int J Mol Sci, 2019
- Small molecule activators of sirtuins extend Saccharomyces cerevisiae lifespan. Nature, 2003
- How fisetin reduces the impact of age and disease on CNS function. Front Biosci, 2015
- Fisetin inhibits high-glucose-induced vascular inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Inflammation Research, 2014
- Fisetin lowers methylglyoxal dependent protein glycation and limits the complications of diabetes. PLoS One, 2011
- Fisetin regulates obesity by targeting mTORC1 signaling. The Journal of nutritional biochemistry, 2013
- Alpha-Ketoglutarate, an Endogenous Metabolite, Extends Lifespan and Compresses Morbidity in Aging Mice. Cell, 2020
- The metabolite alpha-ketoglutarate extends lifespan by inhibiting the ATP synthase and TOR. Nature, 2014
- Alpha-ketoglutarate extends Drosophila lifespan by inhibiting mTOR and activating AMPK. Aging, 2019
- Alpha-ketoglutarate stabilizes redox homeostasis and elasticity in aged mice. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2011
- Effects of alpha-ketoglutarate on lifespan and functional aging of Drosophila melanogaster flies. Ukr Biochem J, 2018
- Dietary alpha-ketoglutarate partially prevents age-related decline in locomotor activity and cold tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster. Biologia, 2017
- Dietary alphaketoglutarate increases cold tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster and enhances protein pool and antioxidant defense in sex-specific manner. J Therm Biol, 2016
- Krebs cycle dysfunction shapes epigenetic landscape of chromatin: novel insights into mitochondrial regulation of aging process. Cell Signal, 2014
- Anti-osteopenic effect of alpha-ketoglutarate. Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism, 2012
- Alfa ketoglutarate (AKG) inhibit osteoporoses development in postmenopausal women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 2003
- Healthy ageing: the beneficial effect of dietary supplementation with alpha-ketoglutarate on arterial elasticity in elderly mice. Journal of Pre-clin and Clin research, 2009
- Addition of α-ketoglutarate to blood cardioplegia improves cardioprotection. The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 1997
- α-ketoglutarate for myocardial protection in heart surgery. The Lancet, 1995
- Alpha-Ketoglutarate: Physiological Functions and Applications. Biomol Therap, 2016
- D-Glucosamine supplementation extends life span of nematodes and of ageing mice. Nature Communications, 2014
- Glucosamine Extends the Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans via Autophagy Induction. Journal of Applied Glycoscience, 2018
- Total mortality risk in relation to use of less-common dietary supplements. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2010
- Use of glucosamine and chondroitin in relation to mortality. European journal of epidemiology, 2012
- Association of habitual glucosamine use with risk of cardiovascular disease: prospective study in UK Biobank. British Medical Journal, 2019
- Association between use of specialty dietary supplements and C-reactive protein concentrations. American Journal of Epidemiology, 2012
- New functions of glucosamine as a scavenger of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde. Chem Res Toxicol, 2007
- Glucosamine induces autophagy via an mTOR-independent pathway. Biochem Biophysic Research Comm, 2010
- Assessment of protective effects of glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine against DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide in human lymphocytes. Drug Chem Toxicol, 2014
- Associations of herbal and specialty supplements with lung and colorectal cancer risk in the VITamins and Lifestyle study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 2009
- Increased protein O-GlcNAc modification inhibits inflammatory and neointimal responses to acute endoluminal arterial injury. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 2008
- Distinct effects of glucose and glucosamine on vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells: evidence for a protective role for glucosamine in atherosclerosis. Cardiovasc Diabetol, 2005
- Effect of a high dose of glucosamine on systemic and tissue inflammation in an experimental model of atherosclerosis aggravated by chronic arthritis. Am J Physiol Heart Circ, 2009
- Glucosamine inhibits IL-1beta-induced NFkappaB activation in human osteoarthritic chondrocytes. Osteoarthritis Cartil, 2003
- Low-dose lithium uptake promotes longevity in humans and metazoans. Eur J Nutr, 2011
- Trace lithium in Texas tap water is negatively associated with all-cause mortality and premature death. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 2018
- Pharmacogenetic analysis of lithium-induced delayed aging in Caenorhabditis elegans. J Biol Chem, 2009
- Lithium Promotes Longevity through GSK3/NRF2-Dependent Hormesis Cell Rep, 2016
- Microdose lithium treatment stabilized cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Curr Alzheimer Res, 2013
- Association of Lithium in Drinking Water With the Incidence of Dementia. JAMA Psychiatry, 2017
- Effects of lithium on age-related decline in mitochondrial turnover and function in Caenorhabditis elegans. The Journals of Gerontology, 2014
- Disease-modifying properties of long-term lithium treatment for amnestic mild cognitive impairment: randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry, 2011
- Lithium treatment and risk for dementia in adults with bipolar disorder: population-based cohort study. Br J Psychiatry, 2015
- Is lithium a neuroprotective agent? Ann Clin Psychiatry, 2015
- Microdose lithium treatment stabilized cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Curr Alzheimer Res, 2013
- Chronic Treatment With a Low Dose of Lithium Protects the Brain Against Ischemic Injury by Reducing Apoptotic Death. Stroke, 2003
- Chronic lithium treatment decreases mutant tau protein aggregation in a transgenic mouse model. Journal of Alzheimer’s disease, 2003
- Standard and trace-dose lithium: a systematic review of dementia prevention and other behavioral benefits. Aust N Z J Psychiatry, 2014
- Neuroprotective Effects of Lithium: Implications for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Neurodegenerative Disorders. ACS Chem Neurosci, 2014
- Influence of lithium treatment on GDNF serum and CSF concentrations in patients with early Alzheimer’s disease. Current Alzheimer Research, 2011
- Lithium-induced neuroprotection is associated with epigenetic modification of specific BDNF gene promoter and altered expression of apoptotic-regulatory proteins. Front Neurosci, 2015
- A new look at an old drug: neuroprotective effects and therapeutic potentials of lithium salts. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat, 2016
- Glycine supplementation extends lifespan of male and female mice. Aging Cell, 2019
- Dietary glycine supplementation mimics lifespan extension by dietary methionine restriction in Fisher 344 rats, FASEB, 2011
- Glycine promotes longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans in a methionine cycle-dependent fashion. PloS Genet, 2019
- Glycine treatment decreases proinflammatory cytokines and increases interferon‐gamma in patients with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, 2008.
- Enhancing S-adenosyl-methionine catabolism extends Drosophila lifespan. Nature Communications, 2015
- Plasma Glycine and Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Patients With Suspected Stable Angina Pectoris. J Am Heart Assoc, 2016
- Glycine intake decreases plasma free fatty acids, adipose cell size, and blood pressure in sucrose-fed rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integ Comp Physiol, 2004
- The metabolic response to ingested glycine. Am J Clin Nutr, 2002
- Long-term administration of nicotinamide mononucleotide mitigates age-associated physiological decline in mice. Cell Metab, 2017
- Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) supplementation rescues cerebromicrovascular endothelial function and neurovascular coupling responses and improves cognitive function in aged mice. Redox Biology, 2019
- Nicotinamide mononucleotide supplementation reverses vascular dysfunction and oxidative stress with aging in mice. Aging Cell, 2016
- Impairment of an endothelial NAD(+)-H2S signaling network is a reversible cause of vascular aging. Cell, 2018
- Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) supplementation promotes anti-aging miRNA expression profile in the aorta of aged mice, predicting epigenetic rejuvenation and anti-atherogenic effects. Geroscience, 2019
- NAD+ Repletion Rescues Female Fertility during Reproductive Aging. Cell, 2020
- NAD+ supplementation rejuvenates aged gut adult stem cells. Aging Cell, 2019
- NAD+ controls neural stem cell fate in the aging brain. EBJornal, 2014
- Impairment of an endothelial NAD(+)-H2S signaling network is a reversible cause of vascular aging. Cell, 2018
- Nicotinamide mononucleotide promotes osteogenesis and reduces adipogenesis by regulating mesenchymal stromal cells via the SIRT1 pathway in aged bone marrow. Cell Death & Disease, 2019
- Effect of resveratrol and pterostilbene on aging and longevity. Biofactors, 2018
- Cellular and Behavioral Effects of Stilbene Resveratrol Analogues: Implications for Reducing the Deleterious Effects of Aging. Journ of Agricult Food Chemistry, 2008
- Pterostilbene Improves Cognitive Performance in Aged Rats: An in Vivo Study. Cell Phys & Biochem, 2019
- Low-dose Pterostilbene, but Not Resveratrol, Is a Potent Neuromodulator in Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease. Neurbiol Aging, 2012
- Biological actions and molecular effects of resveratrol, pterostilbene, and 3′-hydroxypterostilbene. J Food Drug Anal, 2017
- Effects of pterostilbene and resveratrol on brain and behavior. Neurochem Int, 2015
- Pterostilbene reduces oxidative stress, prevents hypertrophy and preserves systolic function of right ventricle in cor pulmonale model. Br J Pharmacol, 2017
- Neuroprotective effects of pterostilbene against oxidative stress injury: Involvement of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway. Brain Research, 2016
- Pterostilbene surpassed resveratrol for anti-inflammatory application: Potency consideration and pharmacokinetics perspective. Journal of Functional Foods, 2014
- Pterostilbene Ameliorates Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes through Enhancing Antioxidant Signaling Pathways Mediated by Nrf2. Chem Res Toxicol, 2016
- Pterostilbene protects vascular endothelial cells against oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Apoptosis, 2012
- Pterostilbene, a natural small-molecular compound, promotes cytoprotective macroautophagy in vascular endothelial cells. The Journal of nutritional biochemistry, 2013
- Cellular and behavioral effects of stilbene resveratrol analogues: implications for reducing the deleterious effects of aging. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 2008
- Cancer chemopreventive and antioxidant activities of pterostilbene, a naturally occurring analogue of resveratrol. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. J Agric Food Chem, 2002
- Pterostilbene and cancer: current review. J Surg Res, 2012
- Pterostilbene alleviates polymicrobial sepsis-induced liver injury: Possible role of SIRT1 signaling. Int Immunopharmacol, 2017
- Promising therapeutic potential of pterostilbene and its mechanistic insight based on preclinical evidence. Eur J Pharmacol, 2016
- In vivo effect of pinosylvin and pterostilbene in the animal model of adjuvant arthritis. Neuro Endocrinology Letters, 2009
- L-Theanine extends lifespan of adult Caenorhabditis elegans. Eur J Nutr, 2012
- L-Theanine attenuates liver aging by inhibiting advanced glycation end products in d-galactose-induced rats and reversing an imbalance of oxidative stress and inflammation. Experimental Gerontology, 2020
- Prevention of brain aging by green tea components: Role of catechins and theanine. Journ of Physic Fitness, 2016
- l-Theanine, an amino acid in green tea, attenuates beta-amyloid-induced cognitive dysfunction and neurotoxicity: reduction in oxidative damage and inactivation of ERK/p38 kinase and NF-kappaB pathways. Free Radic Biol Med, 2009
- Selective Upregulation by Theanine of Slc38a1 Expression in Neural Stem Cell for Brain Wellness. Molecules, 2020
- Daily oral intake of L-theanine prevents the decline of 5-bromo-20 -deoxyuridine incorporation in hippocampal dentate gyrus with concomitant alleviation of behavioral abnormalities in adult mice with severe traumatic stress. J. Pharmacol. Sci, 2015
- Facilitated neurogenesis in the developing hippocampus after intake of theanine, an amino acid in tea leaves, and object recognition memory. Cell Mol Neurobiol, 2011
- Effects of L-Theanine Administration on Stress-Related Symptoms and Cognitive Functions in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients, 2019
- Protective effect of the green tea component, L-theanine on environmental toxins-induced neuronal cell death. Neurotoxicology, 2008
Hyaluronic Acid & its Component Acetyl-Glucosamine
- Hexosamine Pathway Metabolites Enhance Protein Quality Control and Prolong Life. Cell, 2014
- Oral hyaluronan relieves wrinkles: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study over a 12-week period. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol, 2017
- Ingested hyaluronan moisturizes dry skin. Nutr J, 2014
- Oral hyaluronan relieves knee pain: a review. Nutr J, 2016
- Oral hyaluronan for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review. Progress in Nutrition, 2018
- Oral administration of polymer hyaluronic acid alleviates symptoms of knee osteoarthritis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study over a 12-month period. Scient Wo Journ, 2012
Vitamin C (and synergy with Alpha Ketoglutarate on the epigenome including tet enzymes)
- Vitamin C: An Epigenetic Regulator. Vitamin C – an Update on Current Uses and Functions, 2019
- Ascorbic Acid Promotes Functional Restoration after Spinal Cord Injury Partly by Epigenetic Modulation. Cells, 2020
- An epigenetic role for ascorbic acid in neurodegenerative diseases. CNS Neurosci Ther, 2018
- Ascorbic acid prevents loss of Dlk1-Dio3 imprinting and facilitates generation of all-iPS cell mice from terminally differentiated B cells. Nature Genetics, 2012
- Ascorbic Acid Enhances Tet-Mediated 5-Methylcytosine Oxidation and Promotes DNA Demethylation in Mammals. J Am Chem Soc, 2013
- Ascorbic Acid Promotes Plasma Cell Differentiation through Enhancing TET2/3-Mediated DNA Demethylation. Cell Reports, 2020
- Upregulation of TET Activity with Ascorbic Acid Induces Epigenetic Modulation of Lymphoma Cells. Clinic Lymph, Myel and Leukem, 2017
- Ascorbic acid–induced TET activation mitigates adverse hydroxymethylcytosine loss in renal cell carcinoma. Oncology, 2019
- Understanding and targeting epigenetic dysregulation, aberrant metabolism, and immune evasion in cancer with ascorbic acid. Doctoral thesis Niraj Shenoy, 2020
- Ascorbic Acid as an Epigenetic Therapy for Osteosarcoma. Stanford University thesis Shin Mei Chan, 2018
- The role of vitamin C in epigenetic regulation. Adv Hyg and Exper Medicine, 2017
- Breathing-in epigenetic change with vitamin C. EMBO Rep, 2013
- The role of α-ketoglutarate-dependent proteins in pluripotency acquisition and maintenance. J Biol CHem, 2019
- Alpha-Ketoglutarate as a Molecule with Pleiotropic Activity: Well-Known and Novel Possibilities of Therapeutic Use. Arch Immun Therap Exper, 2016
- Ascorbic Acid Mitigates D-galactose-Induced Brain Aging by Increasing Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Improving Memory Function. Nutrients, 2019
Rhodiola Rosea (& Salidroside)
- Extension of Drosophila lifespan by Rhodiola rosea through a mechanism independent from dietary restriction. PLoS One, 2013
- Plant adaptogens increase lifespan and stress resistance in C. elegans. Biogerontology. 2009
- The golden root, Rhodiola rosea, prolongs lifespan but decreases oxidative stress resistance in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Phytomedicine, 2011
- Rhodiola: a promising anti-aging Chinese herb. Rejuvenation Res, 2007
- Salidroside promotes peripheral nerve regeneration following crush injury to the sciatic nerve in rats. Neuroreport, 2013
- Salidroside promotes peripheral nerve regeneration based on tissue engineering strategy using Schwann cells and PLGA: in vitro and in vivo. Nature, 2017
- Pretreatment with Rhodiola Rosea Extract Reduces Cognitive Impairment Induced by Intracerebroventricular Streptozotocin in Rats: Implication of Anti-oxidative and Neuroprotective Effects. Biom & Environ Scien, 2009
- Protective effects of a Rhodiola crenulata extract and salidroside on hippocampal neurogenesis against streptozotocin-induced neural injury in the rat. PLoS ONE, 2012
- Decreased mitochondrial superoxide levels and enhanced protection against paraquat in Drosophila melanogaster supplemented with Rhodiola rosea. Free Radic Res, 2009
- Rhodiola rosea L. Improves Learning and Memory Function: Preclinical Evidence and Possible Mechanisms. Front Pharmacol, 2018
- Effects of chronic Rhodiola Rosea supplementation on sport performance and antioxidant capacity in trained male: preliminary results. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 2010
- The effectiveness and efficacy of Rhodiola rosea L.: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Phytomedicine, 2011
- Rhodiola Rosea In Stress Induced Fatigue–a Double Blind Cross-over Study Of A Standardized Extract SHR-5 With A Repeated Low-dose Regimen On The Mental Performance Of Healthy Physicians During Night Duty. Phytomedicine, 2000
Malate and Magnesium
- Malate and Fumarate Extend Lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans. PloS, 2013
- Magnesium Role in Health and Longevity. Trace Elements and Minerals in Health and Longevity. Healthy Ageing and Longevity, vol 8. Springer, 2018
- Role of magnesium in genomic stability. Mutat Res, 2001
- Association of dietary magnesium and DNA repair capacity with lung cancer risk. Cancer Epid. & Biomarkers & Prevention, 2006
- Dietary magnesium supplementation improves lifespan in a mouse model of progeria. EMBO Mol Med, 2020
- Ginger extract extends the lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster through antioxidation and ameliorating metabolic dysfunction. Journal of Funct Foods, 2018
- Zingiber officinale extends Drosophila melanogaster life span in xenobiotic-induced oxidative stress conditions. Frontiers in biology, 2018
- Influence of ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale Rosc) on survival, glutathione and lipid peroxidation in mice after whole-body exposure to gamma radiation. Radiat Res, 2003
- Investigation of the effect of ginger on the lipid levels. A double blind controlled clinical trial. Saudi Med J, 2008
- The effect of ginger supplementation on serum C-reactive protein, lipid profile and glycaemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Food Nutr Res, 2016
- Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ginger in Health and Physical Activity: Review of Current Evidence. Int J Prev Med, 2013
- Effects of a ginger extract on knee pain in patients with osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum, 2001
- Zingiber officinale ameliorates allergic asthma via suppression of Th2-mediated immune response. Pharm Biol, 2015
- The Effects of Ginger on Fasting Blood Sugar, Hemoglobin A1c, and Lipid Profiles in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Int J Endocrinol Metab, 2017
- The effect of ginger powder supplementation on insulin resistance and glycemic indices in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Complement Ther Med, 2014
- Protective Effects of Ginger Root Extract on Alzheimer Disease-Induced Behavioral Dysfunction in Rats. Rejuven Research, 2012