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What Is Immune Senescence, What Is Inflammaging, and How Do They Impact Aging?

immune senescence and inflammaging

Immune senescence and inflammaging are two important processes related to aging that have significant implications for human health. This article explores what these processes are, how they relate to aging, and the potential implications of these processes for humans.

Immune senescence and inflammaging are two important topics related to aging, which are gaining more attention in recent years due to their potential implications for health and longevity. This article will explore what immune senescence and inflammaging are, how they relate to aging, and the potential implications of these processes for human health.

Immune senescence is a process whereby the immune system gradually loses its capacity to respond to new challenges or to maintain its protective functions over time. This phenomenon has been observed in many species and is thought to be an important factor in age-related diseases. Immunosenescence is characterized by a decline in the production of certain cytokines and antigens, as well as changes in the number and functions of certain types of immune cells such as T cells and B cells (Ventura et al., 2017). The result of these changes is an immune system that is less able to defend against infection and disease. 

Inflammaging is a term used to describe the chronic low-level inflammation that develops with age and is associated with a variety of age-related diseases. It is thought to be caused by a combination of factors, such as environmental exposure, lifestyle choices, and genetics, and is one of the 12 causes of aging

Inflammaging is characterized by increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as changes in the composition of the microbiome (Ferrucci & Fabbri, 2018). These changes can lead to disruption of normal cellular homeostasis, which can, in turn, lead to an increased risk of various diseases.

The relationship between immune senescence and inflammaging is complex and not yet fully understood. While it is clear that both processes are associated with aging, it is unclear whether one process causes the other or if there is a more complex interaction between the two. It is also unclear whether one process is more important than the other in terms of influencing age-related diseases. 

The potential implications of immune senescence and inflammaging for human health are significant (Santoro et al., 2021). Both processes have been linked to an increased risk of age-related diseases such as Alzheimer’s, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Additionally, research suggests that interventions aimed at reducing the effects of both processes may help to improve overall health and extend lifespan. Further research is needed to better understand the mechanisms behind immune senescence and inflammaging and to develop effective treatments. 

In conclusion, immune senescence and inflammaging are two key processes related to aging that have important implications for human health. While much progress has been made in understanding the nature of these processes, further research is necessary to determine how they interact and to develop treatments that can mitigate their effects on the body.


  1. Ferrucci, L., & Fabbri, E. (2018). Inflammageing: chronic inflammation in ageing, cardiovascular disease, and frailty. Nature reviews. Cardiology, 15(9), 505–522. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41569-018-0064-2
  2. Santoro, A., Bientinesi, E., & Monti, D. (2021). Immunosenescence and inflammaging in the aging process: age-related diseases or longevity?. Ageing research reviews, 71, 101422. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2021.101422
  3. Ventura, M. T., Casciaro, M., Gangemi, S., & Buquicchio, R. (2017). Immunosenescence in aging: between immune cells depletion and cytokines up-regulation. Clinical and molecular allergy : CMA, 15, 21. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12948-017-0077-0


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